About the hospital
There are two types of medical institutions in Japan: large-scale medical institutions such as "○ ○ general hospital" and "○ ○ university hospital," and small medical institutions called "○ ○ clinic" and "○ ○ doctor’s office." When an individual visits for the first time, one is supposed to visit a small medical institution. However, regarding "department" to conduct examination, you should judge by yourself and go to the hospital department like "internal medicine" or "orthopedic surgery" according to your symptoms. Depending on the country, there is also a system where a family doctor first consults and a specialist after that, but Japan adopts a mechanism to see a specialist from the beginning.
Below, I will roughly introduce the departments that you see according to your symptoms.
Internal medicine ... cold, food poisoning, fever, headache, continuing coughing, abdominal pain, vomiting, continuing diarrhea etc.
Obstetrics & Gynecology ... Female abdominal pain, trouble during pregnancy, etc.
Orthopedic surgery ... fractures, etc.
Pediatrics ... Children's illness
Dental ... Toothache
For medical institutions that can deal with foreign languages, ask at the hotel front desk, the nearest tourist office, or the overseas travel insurance company that you joined. On the website of the Tourism Authority of Japan, there is a sheet that can help you explain to the doctor simply by pointing out the condition and its degree called "useful guide book when you feel ill - medical institution guide." It is safe to download it.
Also, please call an ambulance by calling "119" when you are suffering in an emergency such as an unexpected accident or serious inability to walk by yourself such as abdominal pain. It functions 24 hours, 365 days.
Japan is a country employing a "national health insurance system," and copayment in Japanese hospitals is 30% of the cost of treatment. However, in case of non-insured foreign tourists, please be aware that you will pay the entire bill, including medicine. Credit cards can only be used for large hospitals, and you generally have to pay in cash at individual clinics. If you subscribe in overseas travel insurance, payment will be unnecessary, so considering unexpected illness or accident, it would be safer to subscribe to insurance. In addition, there are places where you will be examined outside the clinical practice hours (such as at night), but in that case, regardless of whether it is a big hospital or an individual clinic, an extra fee will be charged.
If it is not necessary to seek medical attention from a doctor, you can also buy an over-the-counter medicine at a pharmacy / drug store. Over-the-counter drugs can also be purchased by foreigners at the same price, and various kinds of drugs are available. In most cases, staff members who can explain medicine such as pharmacists are stationed during the day, so it is recommended that you consult in these places.